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Problems and Countermeasures in Returning Farmland to Forests
1. Overview of the implementation of the project of returning farmland to forest
The implementation of the project of returning farmland to forests has brought the province's afforestation quality, management quality and planning and design quality to a new level, and the forestry ecological engineering construction has entered a new stage. In order to ensure the quality of the project construction and improve the project construction results, the project of returning farmland to forests was promoted smoothly. The province actively responded to the call of the state and took effective measures to seriously organize the implementation of the project of returning farmland to forests. In accordance with the ecological construction policy of “returning farmland to forests (grass), sealing mountains and greening, and using grain for food and individual contracting”, the province has fully deployed the work of returning farmland to forests. In 2002, the state officially launched the project of returning farmland to forests. The province's plan for returning farmland to forests was 2.4 million mu, of which 1.2 million mu was afforested by reforested land and 1.2 million mu was planted in barren hills and wasteland. The construction of returning farmland to forests basically covers the whole province.
2. Returning farmland to forest concept
The construction of returning farmland to forest project includes two aspects: one is to return farmland to forest on slope farmland; the other is to afforestation in barren hills and wasteland in Yilin. The state implements the system of returning farmland to forests and food subsidies for the project of returning farmland to forests. The state provides appropriate subsidized food, seedling afforestation fees and cash subsidies to returning farmland to forests for a certain period of time in accordance with the approved area of returning farmland to forests. The food subsidy is now changed to a food cash grant of 1.4 yuan per kilogram. The afforestation fee of 50 yuan per acre of farmland and the barren hills and wasteland in Yilin is a one-time subsidy for the year.
The project of returning farmland to forest in Mishan City began in 2002. The project involves 16 townships and 9 state-owned forest farms in the city. The area of returning farmland to forests has been completed, totaling 147,000 mu, including 55,000 mu of cultivated land (including 50,000 ecological forests). Mu, economic forest 0.5 million mu), two wild forests 92,000 acres (all ecological forests). The returning farmland to forests mainly consists of larch, scotch pine, poplar, fruit trees and other tree species. The forests of Yilin barren hills are mainly composed of larch and scotch pine. Through the implementation of returning farmland to forests, it has played a positive role in controlling soil and water loss in slope farmland, improving ecological environment, adjusting rural industrial structure, and improving farmers' living standards.
The project of returning farmland to forests involves a wide range of policies, strong policies, and high standards for implementation. There are some problems that cannot be ignored in the implementation process.
3.1 Rebuilding light pipe phenomenon still exists
There is a phenomenon of rebuilding light pipes in the city. Although the municipal government has formulated corresponding measures for management and protection, the townships and towns have also attached different levels of management and protection work to the agenda. According to the policy of “who will return the farmland, who will make the forest, who will operate, and who will benefit”, the management and protection measures should be implemented. It is difficult to return farmland to forests, and the management and control effect is not satisfactory. The reasons are as follows: (1) The farmer’s management consciousness still has the old idea of extensive management before, and the tree planting is rarely managed, allowing the forest to grow freely. . 2 The farmers who return farmland consider the short-term economic benefits, and plant grain between the upper and lower farmland. For the intercropping phenomenon, when the township cadres clean up the intercropping, there is sympathy, the measures are not in place, and the suppression is weak. 3 management technology can not keep up, the economic forest tree species planted in returning farmland to forests, the majority of returning farmer lack of professional pruning, weeding, fertilization and other professional techniques, so many do not become forest.
3.2 Project lacks operating expenses
The project of returning farmland to forests involves a wide range of tasks, a large amount of tasks, and high engineering requirements. From the planning, implementation plan, operation design, project implementation and supervision, inspection and acceptance of policy cashing, etc., the construction period is long (policy cash 10-16 A lot of work expenses are required. The state will partially subsidize the preliminary work and technology support costs of returning farmland to forests, and clearly stipulate that inspection and acceptance, policy redemption and other payment will be borne by local finance. Due to the financial difficulties of the city, it is difficult to pay all the work costs. Therefore, the lack of engineering funds and the heavy workload have become a major problem that plagues the forestry authorities and project towns and villages. First, in addition to paying the normal expenses for engineering planning, operation design, project supervision, inspection and acceptance, etc., the forestry department must also undertake additional credit and forestry letters and visits, forest tenure disputes, returning farmland to forests, supervision and rectification, meetings, training and reception. The cost has greatly increased the financial pressure on the forestry sector. Second, the implementation of townships and towns in the case of their own financial constraints, but also to undertake the production of returning farmland contracts, chart cards, personnel travel, meetings, training, reception and other costs. Third, because there is no work budget, the grassroots work cadres who undertake a large number of basic work of returning farmland to forests are not active and have dealt with things.
3.3 Legacy issues caused by the implementation of the plan to return farmland to forests
Since the implementation of the project of returning farmland to forests in Mishan City in 2002, the “five-one-one-one” policy was issued, and the city implemented the policy of returning farmland to forests within the scope of the policy. The area of the forest in the same year greatly exceeded the planned area. Some of the land for returning farmland to forests has not been included in the scope of policy subsidies. At present, these forest stands have already become forests, and the corresponding farmers returning farmland to forests have not received any subsidies, which has caused a lot of burden on life. This phenomenon is more prominent in Fuyuan Township.
3.4 Lack of strong constraints
The "Regulations on Returning Farmland to Forests" clearly stipulates the legal responsibilities for violations of laws and regulations, but there are still no mandatory restrictions on returning farmer households. The "Regulations" only provide penalties for arbitrarily re-cultivation, forestry and grain intercropping, etc., but the problem of quantity is not specified. The locality is difficult to grasp on the issue of qualitative and quantitative, which makes it difficult to impose penalties. In addition, if the management of the cultivated land is not in place and the preservation rate is not up to standard, the competent department and the implementation of the township can only rely on the means of doing ideological work, not accepting the inspection, and not returning the subsidy for returning farmland to forests. The problem of unqualified problems will arise, and the solution will be more difficult. There is no mandatory measure to stipulate that the farmers should strengthen the management of the converted farmland.
3.5 job design lag
In some places, due to the late release of national planning tasks, seasonal strong afforestation in the north, and tight time requirements, the basic work in the early stage of returning farmland to forests was affected. There are different degrees of pre-construction design. In some places, the design of the operation is unreasonable, resulting in excessive decentralization of small classes for returning farmland to forests, and some small classes are less than one mu of land. Not only will it cause certain difficulties for future project management, but it will also affect the performance of the project.
3.6 Forest tenure certificate is progressing slowly
The forest tenure certificate is an important legal certificate for the right to use forest land and the ownership of forest trees. The timely payment will directly affect the protection of the legitimate rights and interests of the farmers, and mobilize their enthusiasm for afforestation, tending and management, and achieve the quality of project construction. . However, during the verification process, it was found that due to the excessively high cost of issuing forest tenure certificates and the excessive workload, the phenomenon of the delay in the issuance of forestry rights certificates was widespread. To a certain extent, it has affected the enthusiasm of farmers to return farmland to forests.
3.7 The grassroots staff's business ability needs to be improved
The project of returning farmland to forests is a grand system project with strong policy, high technical quality and wide coverage. Now there are widespread grassroots forestry workers in the province, no matter whether it is the legal norms, policy theory level, management ability or business quality, it is difficult to meet the project construction. Need. There are different levels of problems in the grassroots forestry station staff due to low quality of business and backward equipment, resulting in improper guidance methods for afforestation techniques and irregular design.
4. Countermeasures and recommendations
4.1 Central increase in financial investment in returning farmland to forests
First, it should increase the administrative expenses of local governments and reduce the financial burden. Second, increase the subsidies for seedlings of farmers who have returned farmland, appropriately subsidize forestry management fees, and consolidate the results of returning farmland to forests. Appropriately apply to increase the plan to return farmland to forests, and alleviate the problem of unsubsidized due to returning farmland. The central or local authorities shall issue corresponding management and protection measures and relevant penalties to facilitate the punishment of the occurrence of forest grain intercropping and the arbitrary change of the use of the cultivated land, so as to ensure the continuation and healthy development of the project of returning farmland to forests.
4.2 It is recommended to formulate relevant follow-up policies as soon as possible.
First, the province is located in the cold temperate zone, the trees grow slowly, mainly to build poplar, larch and other tree species, to allow for longer harvesting time, no recent benefits, it is recommended to extend the province's subsidy for returning farmland to forests. Second, it is recommended to give policy inclinations on agricultural development projects, create favorable conditions for farmers to develop alternative industries after returning farmland, and solve farmers' worries. Third, China Agriculture and Forestry Network recommends researching and formulating policies for returning farmland to forests and forests, and thoroughly eliminating the worries of returning farmland farmers to harvesting and utilizing forest trees.
4.3 It is recommended to increase the training of engineering management personnel
Since the project of returning farmland to forests is a huge systematic project, the quality of the project is high, the technology is strong, and the policy is strong. It is recommended that the state regularly hold high-level training courses for engineering management personnel to achieve layer-level training and improve the quality of the overall project management personnel. Ensure the smooth implementation of the project.
4.4 It is recommended to strengthen the construction of forestry workstations in townships through legislation or policy formulation.
The township forestry station is the most basic forestry management institution. In the project construction, it has the specific work of propagating and implementing the national forestry policy and undertaking the project construction. The quality of forestry workstation construction will directly affect the success or failure of the project of returning farmland to forests. Therefore, it is recommended that the state adopt legislation or policy formulation to explicitly require the strengthening of forestry workstation construction to ensure the smooth development of grassroots forestry work.